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it is not the secretion of pheromones which act to suppress reproductive function but rather. Subsequent research however, suggests that JH is implicated in the manifestation of dominance, though it only exerts dominance-type effects on certain individuals. Subordination is beneficial in agonistic conflicts where rank predicts the outcome of a fight. A b c Gesquiere, Laurence.; Learn, Niki.; Simao, Carolina.; Onyango, Patrick.; Alberts, Susan.; Altmann, Jeanne (2011). 7 There is also the possibility that a subordinate individual who stays may become a high-ranking individual at a future time if the alpha male dies or is usurped. This reduced fitness due to the alpha position results in individuals maintaining high rank for shorter periods of time and having an overall reduced health and longevity from the physical strain and costs of the position. Thus they have increased survival because of increased nutrition and decreased predation. 49 For other animals, the time spent in the group serves as a determinant of dominance status. When initially developed, game theory, the study of optimal strategies during pair-wise conflict, was grounded in the false assumption that animals engaged in conflict were of equal fighting ability. Citation needed Individuals with greater hierarchical status tend to displace those ranked lower from access to space, to food and to mating opportunities.

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