No matter, oaths of allegiance meant little to the typical Acadian, whose actions were dictated by his own peculiar circumstance, not by imperial custom, international law, or his relationship, cultural or political, to the imperial powers who proposed to rule him. . Pity the Indian, Frenchman, or Roman Catholic who appeared in the Old Dominion during this autumn of mass hysteria. Queen Anne, in her final days, had given them incentive to stay. . Among the reinforcements was Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers, Jumonville's older brother, who arrived on June 26 from Fort de Chartres on the Mississippi with a contingent of his own. . Shirley was advocating a different sort of venture, one "financed, directed, and carried out by the colonies alone, with perhaps some support from the British naval units stationed in American waters." John Bradstreet, whose mother, Agathe La Tour, was. More ominously, however, Lawrence was receiving reports of Acadians at Minas trading not only with Louisbourg, but also with the French and Indians along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy. . According to a history of that type of fighting force, Benjamin Church, who fought in Acadia in King William's Queen Anne's wars, was the "father of American ranging." See online Wikipedia, "United States Army Rangers Book One. . Clark observes: "It must be borne in mind that much more marshland was dyked at any one time than was actually in use. . See Beck, "Cornwallis in DCB, online ; Fortier, Louisiana, 1:154; Parkman, France England, 2:911-13; online Wikipedia, "Father Le Loutre's War." 119.